Data on simvastain utilization, prices, and expenditures between 1997 and 2007 in the United Kingdom and four other countries were obtained from an outside vendor.
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CRP levels are still associated with the MetS in patients treated with intensive lipid lowering therapy.
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Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a common vascular dysplasia that affects both systemic and central nervous system blood vessels. Loss of function mutations in the CCM2 gene cause CCM. Here we show that targeted disruption of Ccm2 in mice results in failed lumen formation and early embryonic death through an endothelial cell autonomous mechanism. We show that CCM2 regulates endothelial cytoskeletal architecture, cell-to-cell interactions and lumen formation. Heterozygosity at Ccm2, a genotype equivalent to that in human CCM, results in impaired endothelial barrier function. On the basis of our biochemical studies indicating that loss of CCM2 results in activation of RHOA GTPase, we rescued the cellular phenotype and barrier function in heterozygous mice with simvastatin, a drug known to inhibit Rho GTPases. These data offer the prospect for pharmacological treatment of a human vascular dysplasia with a widely available and safe drug.
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There is little evidence to show that strict dietary modification alone confers any significant impact on cardiac events in primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Given the efficacy of the statins, the need for strict dietary modification in patients on statin therapy has been questioned. This study was performed to assess 1) the added benefit on serum lipid levels of a strict low-fat dietary regimen in patients with hypercholesterolaemia already treated with simvastatin; 2) the efficacy of simvastatin on the lipid profile of our sample Asian population; and 3) the tolerability and side-effect profile of simvastatin. This study was a prospective evaluation of 60 patients with hypercholesterolaemia treated with simvastatin who were subjected to either a normal diet or a dietitian guided low-fat diet. Assessment of the effects on serum lipid levels, side-effects, biochemical and haematological markers were performed. After 24 weeks of treatment, a strict dietitian guided low-fat diet conferred no additional benefit over and above what was achieved by simvastatin alone. Furthermore, a higher dose of simvastatin was needed in the dietitian guided diet group to achieve the target LDL-cholesterol level. Simvastatin resulted in a significant positive alteration of lipid profiles in all patients. The drug was well tolerated, with no significant change in either haematological or biochemical indices. Simvastatin is a highly effective cholesterol-lowering drug with a beneficial effect on the entire lipid spectrum in a cross-section of Asian patients, and is well tolerated. A dietitian guided dietary approach confers no additional advantage once statin therapy has been initiated.
This study shows that simvastatin therapy leads to a reversal of the cyclosporine A-induced bone loss, which may be mediated by downregulation of interleukin-1beta and prostaglandin E(2) production.
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Statin therapy is associated with changes in low-density, very low-density, and high- density lipoprotein metabolism. The effect of statin therapy on a minor high-density lipoprotein particle containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D has not been examined. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D (GPI-PLD) has been implicated in triglyceride metabolism. A double-blind, crossover design comparing the effect of simvastatin (80 mg) and atorvastatin (80 mg) on serum lipid and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D levels was conducted in 13 patients with low high-density lipoproteins. Both statins reduced cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B and significantly lowered serum glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D levels (16%). This statin effect seems to occur in the plasma compartment as neither statin altered GPI-PLD mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. Serum glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D levels are regulated by statins and may represent an additional biochemical mechanism for affecting serum triglyceride levels.
Low doses of statins rapidly induce the translocation of Akt to discrete sites in endothelial cell plasma membrane that colocalize with F-actin-positive, focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-negative lamellipodia and filopodia. This translocation event requires the lipid-binding, pleckstrin homology domain of Akt. Treatment with phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) inhibitors or the HMG-CoA reductase reaction product L-mevalonate blocks the translocation of Akt in response to statin stimulation. Furthermore, the ability of statins to promote Akt activation and translocation to the membrane is inhibited by cholesterol delivery to cells, but cholesterol loading had no effect on VEGF-induced Akt activation.
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This observational study used merged administrative data from VHA and a predominant regional PHIP to select veterans < 65 years of age, residing in two Midwestern US states, and simultaneously enrolled in both VHA and the PHIP during fiscal years (FY) 2001-2010. Primary outcome measures included counts of prescriptions dispensed from VHA and non-VHA pharmacies, and frequencies of medications dispensed by non-VHA pharmacies based on PHIP claims.
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In this study, simvastatin, atorvastatin, ezetimibe, and ezetimibe + simvastatin combination were administered to arthritic rats, first to determine their effects on the inflammatory response, employing a low-dose adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats. Arthritis was induced by the subcutaneous injection of a suspension of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (100 μg) in mineral oil [complete Freund's adjuvant used (CFA)] into the plantar surface of the hind paws. Simvastatin(40 mg/kg), atorvastatin(10 mg/kg), ezetimibe(10 mg/kg), ezetimibe(10 mg/kg) + simvastatin(20 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg) were given intragastrically and the treatment began on the day of CFA injection and continued daily up to the 28th day after arthritis induction. The ezetimibe + simvastatin combination was more effective in reducing the inflammatory response in arthritic rats than in atorvastatin, simvastatin, or ezetimibe monotherapy. The observed effect seems to be cholesterol-independent as there were no changes in plasma cholesterol levels. In spite of the benefits on joint lesions, treatment with ezetimibe + simvastatin combination caused a marked increment in liver, kidneys, spleen size, and plasma transaminases activities. Therefore, animals treated with the ezetimibe(10 mg/kg) + simvastatin(40 mg/kg) combination were also submitted to liver perfusion experiments. In this regard, ezetimibe + simvastatin did not improve the liver metabolic alterations seen in control arthritic rats, on the contrary, a worsening was observed in liver production of glucose from alanine, as well as in oxygen uptake. All of these metabolic changes appear to be induced by treatment with ezetimibe + simvastatin combination, as the same metabolic effects were observed in normal and treated arthritic animals.
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IMPROVE-IT study demonstrated that the addition 10 mg of ezetimibe to 40 mg of simvastatin in patients after acute coronary syndrome reduces significantly not only their LDL-cholesterol, but also the number of cardiovascular events. Recently published subanalysis of this study was focused on whether these combinations of drugs is more preferable for patients with diabetes mellitus or for patients without diabetes. The addition of ezetimibe to a simvastatin resulted in a greater decline of LDL-cholesterol level in diabetic group than in patients without diabetes. In patients with diabetes mellitus their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were decreased significantly; reduction of these clinical end-points in the group of patients without diabetes were not statistically significant.
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Large-scale randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have well demonstrated the beneficial effects of cholesterol-lowering treatment with statins in patients at high risk of vascular disease. However, large statin RCTs were usually restricted to the typical 5-6 years. Moreover, non-cardiovascular events, especially the risk of cancer, probably failed to emerge within a restricted period of 6 years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of statin treatment by performing a meta-analysis of statin RCTs with extended follow-up beyond 6 years. Six RCTs with post-trial follow-up were eligible for inclusion, involving 47,296 patients with total follow-up ranging from 6.7 to 14.7 years. During the post-trial period, all the surviving participants were advised to take a statin and the cholesterol level were almost identical between the original statin group and the original placebo group. Over the entire 6.7-14.7 years of follow-up, a significant reduction in the rates of all-cause mortality (relative risk 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.85-0.96; P=0.0009), cardiovascular mortality (0.87, 0.81-0.93; P<0.0001) and major coronary events (0.79, 0.72-0.86; P<0.00001) was observed in favour of the original statin group. During 2-year post-trial period, further reduction in all-cause mortality (0.83, 0.74-0.93; P=0.001), cardiovascular mortality (0.81, 0.69-0.95; P=0.01) and major coronary events (0.77, 0.63-0.95; P=0.01) was observed among initially statin-treated patients. Over the entire follow-up period, statin treatment did not increase the incidence of cancers (0.99, 0.95-1.04; P=0.79), deaths from cancers (1.00, 0.93-1.07; P=0.98) and non-cardiovascular mortality (0.95, 0.90-1.00; P=0.07). In conclusion, statin treatment beyond 6 years is effective and safe in patients at high risk of vascular events. Moreover, earlier treatment with statin may not only preserve the initial benefit but also have further survival benefit for additional 2 years. Further studies are called for to explore the underlying mechanisms.
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Puerarin inhibits the formation and development of AS plaque and suppresses the migration and reproduction of vascular smooth muscle cells by decreasing PCNA and PDGF-A expressions in the rabbit. This is encouraging in terms of cardiovascular disease prevention/treatment.
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Low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) mediate the uptake of lipoprotein particles into cells, as studied mainly in peripheral tissues. Here, we show that nerve growth factor (NGF) increases LDLR levels in PC6.3 cells and in cultured septal neurons from embryonic rat brain. Study of the mechanisms showed that NGF enhanced transcription of the LDLR gene, acting mainly via Tropomyosin receptor kinase A receptors. Simvastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug, also increased the LDLR expression in PC6.3 cells. In addition, pro-NGF and pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor, acting via the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) also increased LDLRs. We further observed that Myosin Regulatory Light Chain-Interacting Protein/Inducible Degrader of the LDLR (Mylip/Idol) was down-regulated by pro-NGF, whereas the other LDLR regulator, proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) was not significantly changed. On the functional side, NGF and pro-NGF increased lipoprotein uptake by neuronal cells as shown using diacetyl-labeled LDL. The addition of serum-derived lipoprotein particles in conjunction with NGF or simvastatin enhanced neurite outgrowth. Collectively, these results show that NGF and simvastatin are able to stimulate lipoprotein uptake by neurons with a positive effect on neurite outgrowth. Increases in LDLRs and lipoprotein particles in neurons could play a functional role during brain development, in neuroregeneration and after brain injuries. Nerve growth factor (NGF) and pro-NGF induce the expression of low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) in neuronal cells leading to increased LDLR levels. Pro-NGF also down-regulated myosin regulatory light chain-interacting protein/inducible degrader of the LDLR (Mylip/Idol) that is involved in the degradation of LDLRs. NGF acts mainly via Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) receptors, whereas pro-NGF stimulates p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). Elevated LDLRs upon NGF and pro-NGF treatments enhanced lipoprotein uptake by neurons. Addition of LDL particles further led to the stimulation of neurite outgrowth in PC6.3 cells after NGF or simvastatin treatments, suggesting a stimulatory role of lipoproteins on neuronal differentiation. In contrast, pro-NGF had no effect on neurite outgrowth either in the absence or presence of LDL particles. The precise mechanisms by which increased lipoproteins uptake can affect neurite outgrowth warrant further studies.