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Acute effects of exogenous 5-HT or endogenous release of 5-HT by luminal glucose on cellular localization of 5-HT(3)Rs was determined by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Treatment with the serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, for 6 days (20 mg/kg daily orally) was used to increase mucosal 5-HT chronically in rats. Net ileal fluid movement was measured in anesthetized rats by the weight change of a 2.5% agarose cylinder.
The 10 drugs administered in the most pediatric hospitalizations were acetaminophen, lidocaine, ampicillin, gentamicin, fentanyl, ibuprofen, morphine, ondansetron, ceftriaxone, and albuterol.
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YM060, (R)-5-[(1-methyl-3-indolyl)carbonyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-benzimidazole hydrochloride, is a new serotonin (5HT)3-receptor antagonist. We examined the effects of YM060 on chemotherapeutic agent-, apomorphine- and copper sulfate-induced emesis. Intravenous YM060 potently prevented cisplatin (10 mg/kg, i.v.)-induced emesis with ED50 values of 0.06 (0.05-0.07) micrograms/kg, i.v. in ferrets. Based on the ED50 values, YM060 was 300, 20 and 100 times more potent than ondansetron, granisetron and the S-isomer of YM060, respectively. The relative potencies of these drugs described above were similar to those in the previously reported 5HT3-receptor antagonism. YM060 given orally also potently inhibited cisplatin (10 mg/kg, i.p.)- and cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced emesis in ferrets with ED50 values of 0.1 (0.09-0.11) and 0.02 (0.16-0.27) micrograms/kg, p.o., respectively. All tested 5HT3-receptor antagonists including YM060 failed to prevent apomorphine (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.)-induced emesis in dogs and copper sulfate (1%, 10 ml, p.o.)-induced emesis in ferrets. Our data indicate that YM060 is a highly potent inhibitor of chemotherapeutic agent-induced emesis and that the antiemetic effect of YM060 may be depend on 5HT3-receptor antagonism.
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Slices from rat midbrain containing the raphe nuclei and from hippocampus were prepared, loaded with [3H]5-HT and superfused and the resting and the electrically stimulated [3H]5-HT release was measured. The 5-HT3 receptor agonist 2-methyl-5-HT (1 to 10 micromol/l) increased the resting tritium outflow in superfused raphe nuclei slices, EC50 5.3 micromol/l. The 2-methyl-5-HT-induced increase of tritium outflow was an external Ca2+-independent process and was not altered by reserpine pretreatment but it was reversed by addition of the 5-HT uptake inhibitor fluoxetine (1 micromol/l). The 5-HT3 receptor antagonists ondansetron and GYKI-46 903 (1 micromol/l) did not antagonize the stimulatory effect of 2-methyl-5-HT on resting tritium outflow. 2-Methyl-5-HT in lower concentration increased the electrically induced tritium overflow from raphe nuclei slices (EC50 0.56 micromol/l) and also from hippocampal slices preloaded with [3H]5-HT. These effects were reversed by 1 micromol/l of ondansetron and GYKI-46903. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (1 micromol/l) were without effects on depolarization-evoked [3H]5-HT release at 2 Hz stimulation, when 10 Hz stimulation was used, ondansetron and GYKI-46 903 reduced the tritium overflow from raphe nuclei slices. These data indicate that 5-HT3 receptors positively alter depolarization-induced somatodendritic 5-HT release in the raphe nuclei. They also show that 2-methyl-5-HT is able to evoke 5-HT release not only from vesicles but also from cytoplasmic stores via a transporter-dependent exchange process.
The pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of two oral formulations of ondansetron were evaluated; Zetron (Biolab Pharmaceutical, Bangkok, Thailand), as the test formulation and Zofran (Glaxo Wellcome Operations, Greenford, UK), as the reference formulation. The two products were administered as a single oral dose of 8 mg according to a randomized two-way crossover design to 12 healthy Thai male volunteers. The washout period between treatment was 1 week. Ondansetron plasma concentrations were measured using HPLC. The oral bioavailability of ondansetron averaged 67 per cent and the elimination half-life after oral administration was 5.6 hours. The means and parametric 90 per cent CI of the ratios of Cmax and AUC 0-alpha [mu Zetron (Test)/mu Zofran (Reference)] were 0.95 (0.84-1.07) and 0.94 (0.80-1.10), respectively. These values were well within the bioequivalence range of 0.8-1.25 as established by the US-FDA. The mean difference of Tmax (Test-Reference) was approximately 20 per cent. Thus, our study demonstrated bioequivalence of the two products (Zetron and Zofran) regarding the rate and extent of absorption.
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The results of the present study are consistent with a minimal role of 5-HT3 receptors in transducing ethanol's discriminative stimulus effects. Over-expression of 5-HT3 receptors does not alter the relative efficacy of GABAA positive modulators or NMDA antagonists for producing ethanol-like discriminative stimulus effects. However, 5-HT3 receptor over-expression does appear to modulate the response-rate altering effects of the uncompetitive NMDA antagonist, dizocilpine, and the 5-HT3 antagonist, MDL-72222.
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To determine the antiemetic drug preferences of practicing adult oncologists and to estimate the frequency of use of marijuana smoke as an antiemetic agent.
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To determine which antiemetics are being used with ondansetron (Zofran, Cerenex Pharmaceuticals, Research Triangle Park, NC) for patients receiving emetogenic chemotherapy, identify the more frequently administered antiemetic regimens, and ascertain nurses' perceptions of the effectiveness of these regimens.
Two pivotal Phase III trials compared the efficacy of palonosetron, ondansetron and granisetron, combined with dexamethasone, for the prevention of nausea and vomiting following highly emetogenic chemotherapy. However, an economic evaluation of these three regimens in the real-world setting of Chinese adult patients has not been determined.
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The aim of this study was to investigate serotonin (5-HT) receptors in the penile bulb, which have been suggested to play a role in penile erection. Serotonin (10(-7)-3 x 10(-4) M) contracted penile bulbs in a concentration-dependent manner. Ketanserin (5-HT(2A) antagonist, 10(-9)-10(-7) M) and prazosin (alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor blocker, 10(-9)-10(-7) M) suppressed the lower and upper parts of concentration-response curves to 5-HT, respectively. Guanethidine (adrenergic neuron blocker, 5 x 10(-5) M) reduced the responses to 5-HT at only 10(-4) and 3 x 10(-4) M concentrations. NAN-190 (5-HT(1A) antagonist, 10(-8), 10(-7) M) shifted the concentration-response curve to the right with a reduction in the maximum response to 5-HT. While ondansetron (5-HT(3) antagonist, 10(-6)-10(-5) M) and GR55562 (5-HT(1B/1D) antagonist, 10(-6)-10(-5) M) had no effect on the concentration-response curve to 5-HT. The 5-HT(1A) agonist 8-OH-DPAT (10(-7)-3 x 10(-4) M) contracted penile bulbs in a concentration-dependent manner with a lower pD(2) value than that of 5-HT. Sumatriptan (5-HT(1B/1D) agonist, 10(-8)-10(-4) M) did not produce any contractile response in the penile bulbs. Prucalopride, a selective 5-HT(4) agonist (R093877, 10(-7)-3 x 10(-4) M) produced concentration-dependent relaxation in penile bulbs contracted by phenylephrine (10(-5) M). 5-HT(4) agonists cisapride (10(-7)-10(-4) M) and metoclopramide (10(-7)-3 x 10(-4) M) also relaxed the tissue, concentration-dependently. Selective 5-HT(4) antagonists GR125487 (10(-6)-10(-5) M) and GR113808 (10(-6)-10(-5) M) slightly, but not significantly, decreased prucalopride- and cisapride-induced relaxation. Propranolol (beta-adrenergic receptor blocker, 10(-6)-10(-5) M) and L-NOARG (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 10(-4) M) had no effect on prucalopride-induced relaxation. These results suggest the existence of alpha(1)-adrenergic, 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) serotonergic receptors in the penile bulb of rats, which are responsible for 5-HT-induced contraction. Additionally, a serotonergic receptor resembling a 5-HT(4)-type plays a role in the relaxation. The latter receptor is activated by 5-HT(4) agonists, but is not antagonized by 5-HT(4) antagonists.
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Retrospective data extraction and analysis of electronic anesthesia records.
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The prophylactic administration of 1 mg intravenous haloperidol or 4 mg ondansetron, in female patients undergoing gynaecological surgery, did not improve the overall incidence of nausea and/or vomiting vs. placebo. However, haloperidol 1 mg proved to be an effective antiemetic in the early observation period without significant adverse effects.
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This study aimed at comparing perioperative patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) and patient controlled intravenous analgesia (PCA) after gynecologic oncology surgeries.