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Microdialysis, binding and behavioural studies have shown that the dopaminergic system plays a role in antidepressant treatment.
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There is little information on the efficacy and side effects of antidepressant treatment in elderly patients with combined depression and cognitive impairment without dementia (DEP-MCI), and it is unclear if cognitive performance improves with antidepressant response in these patients.
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A 26-year-old white man was discovered dead at his residence. His medical history included chronic paranoid schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depressive disorder, obstructive sleep apnea, and akathisia. He had no prior history of cardiovascular disease. His medication regimen included clozapine 100 mg twice daily (started 4 y prior to his death), risperidone 3 mg twice daily, sertraline 200 mg once daily, atenolol 50 mg twice daily, and lorazepam 0.5 mg four times daily. Autopsy and toxicology studies revealed cardiomegaly suggestive of idiopathic cardiomyopathy, single-vessel coronary artery disease, sertraline and clozapine blood concentrations in the expected range, undetectable lorazepam and risperidone blood concentrations, obesity, and moderate fatty changes to the liver. The most likely cause of death was sudden cardiac death due to acute cardiac arrhythmia.
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A 42-year-old woman developed atypical chest pain, sinus tachycardia, confusion, psychosis, sundowning, agitation, diaphoresis, and tremor. She was taking multiple medications, including tramadol and sertraline. The tramadol dosage had recently been increased, resulting in what was believed to be serotonergic syndrome.
A single oral 100-mg dose of sertraline was administered to 6 subjects who were extensive metabolizers and 6 subjects who were poor metabolizers recruited from 77 healthy Chinese volunteers whose genotypes were predetermined by polymerase chain reaction-based amplification, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Phenotypes were determined by use of the omeprazole metabolic rate. The plasma concentrations of sertraline and desmethylsertraline were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.
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In order to provide better understanding of the molecular biology of ccRCC and to identify potential diagnostic/prognostic biomarker and therapeutic targets, we utilized a microarray to profile mRNA expression of corresponding normal and malignant renal tissues. Real-time PCR, Western Blot and immunohistochemistry were applied to study the expression of candidate biomarkers. ccRCC cell lines were treated with sertraline to inhibit the dopamine transporter SLC6A3.
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of SSRI therapy on BMD in postmenopausal women diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and to identify the effects of the duration of disease and treatment on risk factors for osteoporosis.
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The results provide weak evidence for the efficacy of antidepressants in patients with schizophrenia and depression. Today, the only SSRI tested in the treatment of depression in schizophrenic patients is sertraline. One study led to positive results. Since the meta-analysis, one additional study has been performed comparing sertraline to placebo. No difference between the 2 treatment groups was demonstrated but the power of the trial was rather low. Further research is required to determine the best approach towards treating depression in patients with schizophrenia, with clinical trials performed for longer periods, using appropriate assessment criteria such as depressive symptoms and quality of life.
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Avoidance in the DL box (contextual fear memory) remained unaffected by any treatment and lasted 20 weeks post-shock exposure. Avoidance in the EPM (neophobic fear generalization) was partially attenuated during treatment with almorexant and sertraline at week 3. Following 5 and 17 weeks of drug washout, avoidance in the EPM was significantly reduced in almorexant- but not in sertraline-treated rats. Almorexant also reduced persistent avoidance in the EPM upon treatment initiation 3 weeks after shock exposure.
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This article underscores the underreported nature of antidepressant-associated sexual dysfunction, the high incidence of SSRI-associated sexual side effects, equal potentials in causing sexual side effects among the three SSRI's, the low incidence rate of sexual adverse effects from bupropion, and the minimal need to add an antidote if the side effects are to be managed systematically.
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Subjects were healthy men and women between 21 and 63 years old. All subjects were genotypically CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers. In study 1, 50 mg of desipramine was administered as a single dose alone and in the presence of steady-state duloxetine 60 mg twice daily. In study 2, steady-state pharmacokinetics of duloxetine 40 mg once daily were determined in the presence and absence of steady-state paroxetine 20 mg once daily.
The serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), including clomipramine, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine, have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder; three of these (clomipramine, fluvoxamine, and sertraline) have been approved for treatment of children and adolescents. Clomipramine and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are first-line agents. However, 40 to 60 percent of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder do not respond to adequate treatment trials with SRIs, and agents that alter serotonin receptors and other neurotransmitter systems, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and second-messenger systems, may play a role in treatment. Treatment options for patients who do not respond to SRIs include switching, augmentation, or novel-agent strategies. Up to two-thirds of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder have comorbid psychiatric disorders, which may present a challenge in pharmacologic treatment. Major depressive disorder is the most common comorbid condition. Nonpharmacologic invasive techniques may play a role in refractory cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder, but further research is warranted.
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To review placebo-controlled medication trials in social phobia (SP).
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After 4 months patients in all three groups exhibited significant improvement; the proportion of remitted participants (ie, those who no longer met diagnostic criteria for MDD and had an HRSD score <8) was comparable across the three treatment conditions. After 10 months, however, remitted subjects in the exercise group had significantly lower relapse rates (p = .01) than subjects in the medication group. Exercising on one's own during the follow-up period was associated with a reduced probability of depression diagnosis at the end of that period (odds ratio = 0.49, p = .0009).