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Zyloprim (Allopurinol)
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Zyloprim

Generic Zyloprim is a medication used for gout treatment, provoked by metabolism abnormality with serious affection on joints. Generally, it is used for treating acute attacks of gout, erosive destructive gouty joint disease, uric acid deposits in tissues gouty kidney disease, and uric acid stones. Generic Zyloprim is used for treating gout caused by excessive levels of uric acid in the blood (hyperuricemia). Hyperuricemia occurs when the body produces more uric acid than it can eliminate.

Other names for this medication:
Alloril, Allorin, Allosig, Allostad, Allupol, Aloc, Alomaron, Alopron, Alopur, Aloric, Alosfar, Alpurase, Alpuric, Alurin, Aluron, Anoprolin, Anzief, Arythmet, Benoxuric, Bloxanth, Clint, Darinol, Docallopu, Domedol, Edorin, Esloric, Goutex, Hexanurat, Ketanrift, Ketobun a, Licoric, Llanol, Loric, Loricid, Miniplanor, Neufan, Nilapur, No-uric, Ponuric, Pritanol, Prodec, Puribel, Puricemia, Puricos, Purinase, Purinol, Puritenk, Reucid, Rinolic, Salobel, Sinoric, Soluric, Stradumel, Takanarumin, Talol, Tipuric, Tylonic, Ucorex, Uric, Uricnol, Uriconorm, Uriprim, Urogotan a, Uroquad, Vitralgin, Zilopur, Zurim, Zylapour

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Also known as:  Allopurinol.

Description

Generic Zyloprim is used for treating gout caused by excessive levels of uric acid in the blood (hyperuricemia). Hyperuricemia occurs when the body produces more uric acid than it can eliminate. The uric acid forms crystals in joints (gouty arthritis) and tissues, causing inflammation and pain. Elevated blood uric acid levels also can cause kidney disease and stones. Generic Zyloprim prevents the production of uric acid by blocking the activity of the enzyme that converts purines to uric acid.

Generic Zyloprim prevents the production of uric acid by blocking the activity of the enzyme that converts purines to uric acid.

Zyloprim is also known as Allopurinol, Allohexal, Allosig, Progout, Zyloric, Puricos.

Generic name of Generic Zyloprim is Allopurinol.

Brand names of Generic Zyloprim are Zyloprim, Aloprim.

Dosage

The daily dosage of Generic Zyloprim is 100-800 mg.

Take Generic Zyloprim once a day after a meal.

Generic Zyloprim should be taken with food only, to avoid stomach irritation.

Generic Zyloprim should be taken with plenty amount of fluid, to avoid formation of kidney stones.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Zyloprim suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Zyloprim and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Zyloprim are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Zyloprim if you are allergic to Generic Zyloprim components.

Be careful with Generic Zyloprim if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant. It is unknown if Generic Zyloprim is excreted in breast milk. Avoid breast-feeding.

Be careful with Generic Zyloprim if you are taking didanosine, amoxicillin, ampicillin, certain asthma drugs (aminophylline, theophylline), azathioprine.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Zyloprim taking suddenly.

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Iron overload in animal models and humans increases oxidative stress and induces cardiomyopathy. It has been suggested that the vasculature is also damaged, but the impacts on vascular reactivity and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to identify possible changes in the vascular reactivity of aortas from iron overloaded rats and investigate the underlying mechanisms.

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About 25% of patients with Kelley-Seegmiller syndrome present mild neurological symptoms but never with self-destructive behavior. Pathophysiological an increased de novo purinsynthesis is present. Therefore, it comes to an overproduction of urine acid. Urolithiasis is one clinical manifestation.

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Between 1972 and 1985, 87 patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) were admitted to the dermatological intensive care unit at Hôpital Henri Mondor, Créteil, France. The culpable drug was determined by standardized criteria. Only three patients had received no drugs before the onset of TEN. Most patients (71 of 87) were receiving more than one drug. Patients had taken an average of 4.4 +/- 3.4 drugs each. A culpable drug was determined in 67 patients (77%). The mean time from first drug administration to onset of TEN was 13.6 +/- 8.4 days. The culprit drugs included the following: sulfonamides, 18 cases, and especially sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, 12; anticonvulsants, seven (barbiturates and carbamazepine only); nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 29 (especially the phenylbutazone derivative, 16, and oxicam derivatives, 10); allopurinol, three; chlormezanone, three; and others, seven. Aspirin, antipyretics, and antibiotics are infrequently implicated in this series. The pattern of culprit drugs changed with years. The level of sulfonamide-related TEN remained the same, while incidence of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced TEN increased sharply, the introduction of oxicam derivatives being in part responsible.

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Of the 29,298 episodes of incident allopurinol use, 1544 were associated with incident MI (5.3 % episodes). Allopurinol use was associated with reduced hazards of MI, with a HR of 0.85 (95 % CI, 0.77 to 0.95). Compared to no allopurinol use, longer durations of allopurinol use were associated with a lower HR of MI: 1-180 days, 0.98 (95 % CI, 0.84 to 1.14); 181 days to 2 years, 0.83 (95 % CI, 0.72 to 0.95); and >2 years, 0.70 (95 % CI, 0.56 to 0.88). Other factors associated with a higher hazard of MI were: age 75 to <85 years and ≥85 years, male gender, higher Charlson index score, and the use of an ACE inhibitor. Adjustment for CAD risk factors confirmed these findings.

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Two cases of cephalosporin-induced hepatotoxicity with associated jaundice are presented. Both patients developed jaundice and liver enzyme abnormalities soon after injectable cephalosporin therapy was started. Other possible causes were ruled out, including TPN and allopurinol hepatoxicity, and additional medical illnesses associated with hepatoxicity. Both patients recovered fully from the episode of jaundice. Review of the literature suggests a possible hypersensitivity reaction similar to liver toxicity of the penicillin antibiotics.

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Perfusion of DBD liver grafts with HTK is clinically equivalent to UW, with a significant cost reduction.

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In previous studies, we have shown that the rate of cell swelling induced by concentrative proline uptake in isolated rat hepatocytes decreased by 50 per cent after only 24 h of cold storage in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution, thereby representing a sensitive marker of alterations in hepatocyte functions after cold preservation and rewarming. We have thus used concentrative proline uptake to compare the capacity of UW and sodium-lactobionate-sucrose (SLS) solutions to maintain such differentiated hepatocyte functions. Isolated rat hepatocytes were kept at 4 degrees C for 4, 10, 24 and 48 h in UW or SLS solutions, and subsequently cultured at 37 degrees C for 1-2 h. Viability was measured by Trypan blue exclusion. After rewarming, cells were subjected to a 10 min administration of 10 mM proline and accumulation of the amino acid was assessed by changes in cell volume as measured by digital analysis of single-cell images obtained under bright-field illumination. Cell viability was reduced gradually and significantly after 0 to 48 h of preservation, and rewarming amplified this effect. However, loss of viability was similar in UW- and SLS-stored cells, as were initial steady-state cell volumes. Proline-induced swelling rate was reduced significantly by 13, 46 and by 57 per cent after 10, 24 and 48 h of preservation in UW solution, respectively. There is no significant difference between SLS- and UW-preserved hepatocyte swelling rates after 10 h and 48 h of cold preservation. However, the decline in the swelling rate of SLS-preserved hepatocytes incubated for 24 h is significantly lower than that of their UW-preserved counterparts. These results show that the SLS solution can preserve differentiated hepatic functions as well as the UW solution does.

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Continuation of allopurinol treatment, 100mg/d, or standard treatment.

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Gout, a common inflammatory arthritis, can be diagnosed with absolute certainty. Gout results from the body's reaction to urate crystals deposited in tissues, and this pathophysiology is well understood. If used appropriately, available therapies can be entirely effective in not only treating the symptoms of gout, but also in eliminating the excess urate from the body, thereby eradicating the disease. Because of these facts, management of patients with gout should be successful. However, management of gout is particularly challenging in the elderly, even though the principles of management are the same for all age groups. The purpose of this article is to review these principles and discuss them as they pertain to the elderly. The classic gout attack is acute in onset, extremely painful and associated with marked swelling, warmth, erythema and tenderness of a single joint. However, the diagnosis of gout may be challenging in the elderly because atypical presentations are more common in this group. Treatment of acute gout involves the use of NSAIDs, colchicine, corticosteroids or corticotropin (adrenocorticotropic hormone). Unfortunately, co-morbid conditions such as chronic kidney disease, peptic ulcer disease and congestive heart failure may make the use of these agents dangerous or contraindicated. Thus, it is important to try to treat an acute flare of gout at the earliest sign, because the sooner treatment is initiated, the faster the inflammation will resolve. Urate-lowering agents include allopurinol and uricosuric agents. These also must be used judiciously in the elderly. However, if used at the lowest dose that maintains the serum urate level below 5.0-6.0 mg/dL, the excess urate in the body will be eliminated, acute flares will no longer occur and tophi will resolve. Gout is often seen in association with hypertension, excessive alcohol consumption, obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia. These conditions and the medications used to treat them may contribute to the hyperuricaemia. Treating these conditions and using medications that do not promote hyperuricaemia will aid in the management of gout. Despite the challenges that often complicate the management of gout in the elderly, an understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and both the indications and limitations of the medications used should allow successful treatment.

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We describe the clinical history and urine and serum findings of a 78-year-old patient with isolated XDH deficiency presenting as rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnosis was confirmed by mutation analysis.

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An important aspect of organ preservation is the maintenance of intrinsic dilator and antithrombotic mechanisms of blood vessels. Blood vessels synthesize prostacyclin (PGI2), a potent vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet adhesion and aggregation. PGI2 synthesis is controlled by complex mechanisms including adrenoceptor-linked calcium influx and protein kinase C. Since organ preservation solutions may influence these mechanisms, we investigated the effect on in vitro PGI2 synthesis of cold storage of rat aortic rings in lactobionate-raffinose solution (LRS) and hypertonic citrate kidney preservation solution (KPS) on in vitro PGI2 synthesis. Acute incubation of aortic tissue in both preservation solutions at 37 degrees C (compared with minimal essential medium) completely inhibited PGI2 synthesis when stimulated with noradrenaline (NA), phorbol ester (a protein kinase C activator), NaF (a G protein activator), or A23187. Following storage of aortic rings at 4 degrees C (for up to 72 hr) in LRS and KPS, subsequent washing and incubation in MEM, PGI2 synthesis was initially markedly enhanced in response to NA when compared with tissues stored in MEM. These enhanced responses disappeared, and PGI2 synthesis returned to normal following 1 hr incubation of tissues in MEM at 37 degrees C. These data demonstrate that cold storage in preservation fluids exerts minimal deleterious effects, not only on PGI2 synthesis, but possibly on other key processes (calcium homeostasis, protein kinase C activity) in blood vessels.

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buy zyloprim online 2015-09-14

Oxidative stress is a major contributor to brain damage in patients with ischaemic stroke. Uric acid (UA) is a potent endogenous antioxidant molecule. In experimental ischaemia in rats, the exogenous administration of uric acid is neuroprotective and enhances the effect of rtPA. Moreover, in acute stroke patients receiving rtPA within 3 h of stroke onset, the intravenous administration of Tricor Generic Equivalent uric acid is safe, prevents an early decline in uric acid levels and reduces an early increase in oxidative stress markers and in active matrix metalloproteinase nine levels.

zyloprim generic equivalent 2017-01-25

We examined the protective effect of diltiazem, a calcium antagonist, on myocardial ischemic injury associated with generation of hydroxyl free radicals (.OH). Salicylic acid in Ringer's solution (0.5 nmol.microliter-1.min-1) was infused directly through a microdialysis probe to detect the generation of .OH as reflected by the formation of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) in the myocardium. Cardiac dialysate was assayed for 2,3-DHBA by a high-performance liquid chromatographic-electrochemical (HPLC-EC) procedure. The heart was subjected to myocardial ischemia for 15 min by occlusion of left anterior descending artery (LAD). The presence of .OH was indicated in the ischemic reperfused rat heart. However, when heart was reperfused, the elevation of 2,3-DHBA by 15-min ischemia was not observed in the ischemic zone following systemic administration of diltiazem (100 micrograms.min-1.kg-1), a calcium antagonist. When corresponding experiments were performed with allopurinol (10 mg.kg-1) administration of i.v. injection, the elevation of 2,3-DHBA was not observed. These results suggest that Lopressor Dosage Iv diltiazem may suppress the .OH generation from xanthine-xanthine oxidase system by ischemia-reperfusion.

zyloprim tablet doses 2016-06-06

To examine the effect of 2-(3-cyano-4-isobutoxyphenyl)-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid (TEI-6720), an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, on purine metabolism in the lung cancer cell line A549, the activities of adenosine deaminase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, xanthine oxidase, and guanase together with pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase were measured with or without the addition of TEI-6720, and the extracellular concentrations of hypoxanthine, xanthine, inosine, uracil, and uridine were measured after the addition of inosine or uridine to the incubation medium with or without TEI-6720. Moreover, the Na-independent nucleoside transport was determined in A549 cells with Geodon 400 Mg or without TEI-6720. TEI-6720 inhibited the activity of xanthine oxidase in A549 cells, but did not affect other enzymes. During incubation, TEI-6720 not only prevented a decrease in the inosine concentration in inosine-containing medium, but also a decrease in the uridine concentration in uridine-containing medium. Furthermore, the Na-independent transport of uridine was inhibited by TEI-6720 with a K(i) value of 4.1 micromol/l. These results indicate that TEI-6720 is an inhibitor of the Na-independent nucleoside transport of uridine and inosine, as well as xanthine oxidase.

zyloprim brand name 2017-03-04

The measurement of oxypurinol/anti-PD-L1-inducing IFN-γ-releasing cells yields a high diagnostic value in distinguishing between allopurinol-allergic and control subjects. This technique is beneficial in confirming diagnosis of allopurinol-induced SCARs in patients whose reaction develops while taking Cymbalta Migraine Medication multiple drugs.

zyloprim drug 2015-04-20

These results demonstrate that renal resistance to ANP in CBDL rats is accompanied by heightened activity of Cymbalta 40 Mg PDE5, which is due largely to an increase in PDE5 protein. Other PDEs could contribute only a minor part to the enhanced cGMP hydrolysis observed in kidneys of CBDL rats. This PDE5-dependent ANP resistance may represent an important contributor to the sodium retention of liver disease.

zyloprim drug class 2017-11-16

Rebamipide, a gastroprotective drug, was developed in Japan and was proven to be superior to cetraxate, the former most prescribed drug of the same category, in 1989 in the treatment for gastric ulcers. The initially discovered basic mechanisms of action of rebamipide included its action as a prostaglandin inducer and oxygen free-radical scavenger. In the last 5 years, several basic and clinical studies have been performed for functional dyspepsia, chronic gastritis, NSAID-induced gastrointestinal injuries, gastric ulcer following eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori, gastric ulcer after endoscopic surgery and ulcerative Mobic User Reviews colitis. In addition, several molecules have been identified as therapeutic targets of rebamipide to explain its pleiotropic pharmacological actions. The aim of this article is to provide an update on the pharmacological and clinical profile of rebamipide and to explore further possibilities for additional indications.

www zyloprim tablets 2015-10-03

The killing of blood-stage malaria parasites in vivo has been attributed to reactive intermediates of oxygen (ROI) and of nitrogen (RNI). However, in the case of the latter, this contention is challenged by recent observations that parasitemia was not exacerbated in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) knockout (KO) (NOS2-/- or NOS3-/-) mice or in mice treated with NOS inhibitors. We now report that the time course shows that Plasmodium chabaudi parasitemia in NADPH oxidase KO (p47phox-/-) mice also was not exacerbated, suggesting a minimal role for ROI-mediated killing of blood-stage parasites. It is possible that the production of protective antibodies during malaria may mask the function of ROI and/or RNI. However, parasitemia in B-cell-deficient JH-/- x NOS2-/- or JH-/- x p47phox-/- mice was not exacerbated. In contrast, the magnitude of peak parasitemia was significantly enhanced in p47phox-/- mice treated with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor Allegra 40 Tablets allopurinol, but the duration of patent parasitemia was not prolonged. Whereas the time course of parasitemia in NOS2-/- x p47phox-/- mice was nearly identical to that seen in normal control mice, allopurinol treatment of these double-KO mice also enhanced the magnitude of peak parasitemia. Thus, ROI generated via the xanthine oxidase pathway contribute to the control of ascending P. chabaudi parasitemia during acute malaria but alone are insufficient to suppress parasitemia to subpatent levels. Together, these results indicate that ROI or RNI can contribute to, but are not essential for, the suppression of parasitemia during blood-stage malaria.

zyloprim dosage forms 2017-10-18

The Celsior solution improves vascular endothelial injury in livers from NHBDs and may have advantages in graft flush and Avapro Generic Equivalent preservation of grafts from NHBDs.

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A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial of add-on allopurinol (300 mg b.i.d.) for poorly responsive schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (DSM-IV criteria) was conducted Guduchi Ayurvedic Medicine . Thirty-five patients were enrolled, of whom 22 completed the 12 weeks of the study. Eighteen of these patients also completed a P50 evoked potential evaluation.

zyloprim tab 100mg 2016-08-15

Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS), a life threatening metabolic syndrome seen in malignancies with high tumor burden, is reviewed in this article. The new Cairo and Bishop classification system is discussed as well as the clinical management of this syndrome. Special emphasis is placed on the use of a relatively new agent, rasburicase, as an alternative to allopurinol in the management of TLS-associated hyperuricemia.

zyloprim generic 2015-05-31

Allopurinol induced pyrimidinuria is a sensitive and specific test that identifies the increased de novo pyrimidine mononucleotide biosynthesis accompanying ornithine trans carbamylase deficiency. We hypothesize that the increased de novo DNA synthesis characteristic of malignant tumors can be detected using this method. Eleven cancer patients and a 30 subject control group were studied. The allopurinol test protocol consists of five urine collection periods--a baseline collection after which time a 300 mg dose of allopurinol is taken, followed by collection of four 6 hour fractional urine collections. Orotate, orotidine and creatinine were measured on the samples. Eight of 11 patients had significantly elevated urine levels of either orotate or orotidine either prior to challenge with allopurinol or during one of the time periods. The allopurinol test for this unstratified group has a sensitivity of 0.73 and a specificity of 1.0. This observational and preliminary report suggest that further study of the potential significance and usefulness of the allopurinol test in patients at risk for or with malignancy is warranted.

zyloprim maximum dose 2015-03-14

This is the first study to demonstrate that reducing serum uric acid has preventive effects against to profibrogenic progression in type 2 diabetic kidney disease. These findings suggest that lowering serum uric acid may be an effective therapeutic intervention to prevent the progression of type 2 diabetic kidney disease.

zyloprim 150 mg 2015-01-23

The allopurinol dose prescribed in gout patients most commonly was a continuation of the pre-admission dosage. Dosage change during admission was rarely observed. Dosages reflected a consideration of renal function. SUA concentrations were measured in only 21% (n = 269) of gout patients. Prescriber interviews (n = 12) reflected adequate knowledge regarding allopurinol use, but most maintained that the primary care setting was more suitable for the management of dose titration in gout.

zyloprim dosage gout 2017-12-17

 Our results suggest that the aqueous extract of H. reticulatus aerial parts might have great potential as an antioxidant and a hypouricemic agent. Our lab is currently identifying the active compounds in the extract to which the biological activities could be attributed.

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This study shows a protective effect of exogenous F16BP added to University of Wisconsin solution during experimental intestinal transplantation in rats. This protective effect, reflected by decreased intestinal damage and bacterial translocation, was related to a decrease in adenosine triphosphate depletion during cold ischemia before intestinal transplantation, and to the reduced availability of xanthine oxidase substrates for free radical generation during reperfusion.