A 2-week, single-center, randomized, open, parallel group comparative clinical study between rupatadine and levocetirizine in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.
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Allergic reactions to insulin, though rare, can have serious consequences in children with type I diabetes mellitus. We report a case of insulin allergy in a 5-year-old child in whom insulin desensitization was accomplished using an insulin pump.
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of the study was to estimate the skin microcirculation reactivity after histamine administration in patients treated with 10mg daily dose of cetirizine for 180 days.
Experimental research suggests that second- and third-generation H(1)-receptor antagonists may achieve anti-inflammatory effects in a clinical context. Further studies are required to support this conclusion.
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Eleven healthy subjects received, double-blind, single doses of the H1-receptor antagonist cetirizine (10 mg), cetirizine (10 mg) plus the H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine (400 mg), or placebo on separate occasions. Histamine was dosed cumulatively by iontophoresis to the forearm skin at 34 degrees C and 14 degrees C. Laser-Doppler flux (LDF) was measured at the same sites using customised probeholder/iontophoretic chambers with Peltier cooling elements. Finger mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured and cutaneous vascular conductance calculated as LDF/MAP.
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In a previous study, cetirizine and fexofenadine similarly relieved seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms in the first 5 hours, but cetirizine was more effective at 21-24 hours postdose. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared the response to treatment between 5 and 12 hours. Eligible ragweed allergic subjects were exposed to pollen in the Environmental Exposure Unit and randomized (n = 599) to a single dose of cetirizine, 10 mg; fexofenadine, 180 mg; or placebo (2.5:2.5:1). The primary efficacy end point was the change from baseline in total symptom severity complex (TSSC) score at 12 hours postdose. TSSC score was the sum of self-rated scores (0 = absent to 3 = severe) for runny nose, sneezing, itchy nose/palate/throat, and itchy/watery eyes, recorded half-hourly. Mean baseline TSSC scores were similar: 9.2, cetirizine and fexofenadine; 8.9, placebo. Reductions in TSSC scores from baseline were 4.3 at 12 hours and 5.0 overall (i.e., average over 5-12 hours postdose) for cetirizine and 3.4 and 4.4, respectively, for fexofenadine. Cetirizine produced a 26% greater reduction in TSSC at 12 hours (p = 0.001) and 14% greater reduction in TSSC overall (p = 0.006) compared with fexofenadine. Cetirizine and fexofenadine reduced TSSC scores (p < 0.001) and individual symptoms (p < 0.05) more than placebo. However, cetirizine was more effective than fexofenadine (p < 0.05) for runny nose and sneezing (12 hours and overall), itchy/watery eyes (12 hours), and itchy nose/throat/palate (overall). Incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events and somnolence were similar among groups: cetirizine, 25.3 and 0.8%, respectively; fexofenadine, 29.6 and 0%, respectively; placebo, 35.0 and 0%, respectively. In conclusion, cetirizine produced greater relief of seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms than fexofenadine at 12 hours postdose and over the 5- to 12-hour postdose period.
This article reviews the contribution of cell-mediated inflammatory responses to the immediate immunoglobulin E-dependent allergic reaction. Apparently eosinophils play an important part in the pathogenesis of allergic reactions. Some new H1 antihistamines may also have non-H1-mediated antiinflammatory properties. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies of allergic and normal subjects, we showed that oral cetirizine, at dosages of 10 and 20 mg/day, significantly inhibited wheal-and-erythema reactions induced by grass pollen, 48/80, histamine, platelet-activating factor acether, and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. In the first study, cutaneous eosinophil migration was significantly inhibited by cetirizine at pollen and 48/80 skin test sites (61%, p less than 0.01, and 53%, p less than 0.01, respectively), although no change was observed at histamine skin test sites. Inhibition of neutrophil accumulation was also observed at pollen and 48/80 sites (41%, p less than 0.1, and 31%, p less than 0.1, respectively). Monocyte accumulation was not affected by cetirizine. In the second study, cetirizine suppressed the eosinophil influx induced by pollen, platelet-activating factor, 400 ng, and platelet-activating factor, 40 ng (63%, p less than 0.001; 58.5%, p less than 0.001; and 57.8%, p less than 0.01, respectively). This inhibition was effective 2 hours after challenge and persisted through hours 4, 8, and 24. N-Formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine induced a weak eosinophil accumulation that was inhibited by cetirizine.
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Levocetirizine was launched onto the UK market in September 2001. It is indicated for symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR), including persistent AR and chronic idiopathic urticaria.
An exposure assessment for multiple pharmaceuticals in Swedish surface waters was made using the STREAM-EU model. Results indicate that Metformin (27 ton/y), Paracetamol (6.9 ton/y) and Ibuprofen (2.33 ton/y) were the drugs with higher amounts reaching the Baltic Sea in 2011. 35 of the studied substances had more than 1 kg/y of predicted flush to the sea. Exposure potential given by the ratio amount of the drug exported to the sea/amount emitted to the environment was higher than 50% for 7 drugs (Piperacillin, Lorazepam, Metformin, Hydroxycarbamide, Hydrochlorothiazide, Furosemide and Cetirizine), implying that a high proportion of them will reach the sea, and below 10% for 27 drugs, implying high catchment attenuation. Exposure potentials were found to be dependent of persistency and hydrophobicity of the drugs. Chemicals with Log D > 2 had exposure potentials <10% regardless of their persistence. Chemicals with Log D < -2 had exposure potentials >35% with higher ratios typically achieved for longer half-lives. For Stockholm urban area, 17 of the 54 pharmaceuticals studied had calculated concentrations higher than 10 ng/L. Model agreement with monitored values had an r(2) = 0.62 for predicted concentrations and an r(2) = 0.95 for predicted disposed amounts to sea.
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Most of the modern non-sedating H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines) penetrate the brain poorly, allowing the use of doses large enough to counteract allergic processes in peripheral tissues without important central effects. The antihistamines reviewed here are acrivastine, astemizole, cetirizine, ebastine, fexofenadine, loratadine, mizolastine, and terfenadine. However, these drugs are not entirely free from central effects, and there are at least quantitative differences between them. Although psychomotor and sleep studies in healthy subjects in the laboratory may predict that an antihistamine does not cause drowsiness, the safety margin can be narrow enough to cause a central sedating effect during actual treatment. This might result from a patient's individual sensitivity, disease-induced sedation, or drug dosages that are for various reasons relatively or absolutely larger (patient's weight, poor response, reduced drug clearance, interactions). Mild to even moderate sedation is not necessarily a major nuisance, particularly if stimulants need be added to the regimen (e.g. in perennial rhinitis). Furthermore, patients can adjust doses themselves if needed. Sedating antihistamines are not needed for long-term itching, because glucocorticoids are indicated and more effective. It is wise to restrict or avoid using antihistamines (astemizole, terfenadine) that can cause cardiac dysrhythmias, because even severe cardiotoxicity can occur in certain pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions. Histamine H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines) are used in the treatment of allergic disorders. The therapeutic effects of most of the older antihistamines were associated with sedating effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and antimuscarinic effects causing dry mouth and blurred vision. Non-specific "quinidine-like" or local anaesthetic actions often led to cardiotoxicity in animals and man. Although such adverse effects varied from drug to drug, there was some degree of sedation with all old antihistamines. Non-sedating antihistamines have become available during the past 15 years. Some of them also have antiserotonin or other actions that oppose allergic inflammation, and they are not entirely free from sedative effects either. In small to moderate "clinical" concentrations they are competitive H1 receptor antagonists, although large concentrations of some of them exert non-competitive blockade. Daytime drowsiness and weakness are seldom really important, and they restrict patients' activities less than the old antihistamines. Some new antihistamines share with old antihistamines quinidine-like effects on the cardiac conducting tissues, and clinically significant interactions have raised the question of drug safety. This prodysrhythmic effect has also been briefly mentioned in comparisons of non-sedative H1 antihistamines.
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To date, a series of chiral selectors have been utilized successfully in capillary electrophoresis (CE). Among these various chiral selectors, macrocyclic antibiotics have been demonstrated to represent powerful enantioselectivity towards many chiral compounds. Differing from macrocyclic antibiotics, the use of lincosamide antibiotics as chiral selectors has not been reported previously. In our recent work, clindamycin phosphate belonging to the group of lincosamides has been first used as a chiral selector in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). In this paper, a micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method has been developed for the evaluation of enantioseparation capability of this novel chiral selector towards several racemic basic drugs. As observed during the course of this work, clindamycin phosphate allowed excellent separation of the enantiomers of nefopam, citalopram, tryptophan, chlorphenamine, propranolol and metoprolol, as well as partial enantioresolution of tryptophan methyl ester and cetirizine. In this MEKC chiral separation system, different types of anionic surfactants, organic additives and background electrolytes were tested, and satisfactory enantioseparations of basic drugs above-mentioned were achieved using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the surfactant, isopropanol as the organic additive, and phosphate as the background electrolyte. Furthermore, both migration times and enantioseparation of the analytes were influenced by several experimental parameters such as pH of the BGE, clindamycin phosphate and SDS concentrations, phosphate and isopropanol concentrations, and applied voltage. Consequently, the effects of these factors on enantioseparations of the studied basic drugs were systematically investigated in order to evaluate the stereoselectivity of clindamycin phosphate in MEKC.
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An in vitro flow cytometric model has been developed to evaluate the effects of antiallergic drugs such as cetirizine (CTZ) on the expression of surface molecules on primary cultured normal cells. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that HLA class I and ICAM-1/CD54 molecules are present on both epithelial and stromal cells, and that their expression is strongly enhanced by treatment with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Nevertheless, the IFN-gamma-mediated upregulation of ICAM-1/CD54 was inhibited by treatment with CTZ, demonstrating a direct effect on both cell types. This finding is particularly interesting because ICAM-1/CD54 is the main rhinovirus receptor, and rhinoviruses are the principal cause of asthma exacerbation in children. Thus, according to data derived from this in vitro model, CTZ should have an important role in the reduction of infectious exacerbation of asthma in atopic patients.